UPDATES March 2017: Leiden Ranking
At CWTS we have primarily worked on the address cleaning and harmonization as related to the RISIS the register of research actors (OrgReg). Most attention was paid to the identification and harmonization of non-university research organizations and hospitals. The work involves data cleaning for a great deal based on desktop research.
The data underlying the Leiden Ranking dataset involves (WoS) publications being assigned to universities. The assignment of author affiliations to universities when the university is not the main address being mentioned requires a decision model. For instance, it is not always obvious whether a hospital should be regarded as part of the university or not. The entire process has led to a decision model to classify affiliations and a register of research organizations.
A large effort on address cleaning was actually related to these academic hospitals. Our research method is on a continuous optimisation path, considering the implications for the LR dataset. We should admit that this is also a learning process for us as the level of integration or collaboration between academic hospitals and universities differs according to regional and national research systems. Due to these differences the process cannot be automated and hospitals need to be evaluated on an university by university basis.
For the registry we have been integrating information on academic hospitals from universities appearing in the LR 2016 of RISIS countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. It is expected to finish the review of the missing countries for this project by 2017.
With regards to the LR 2016 edition, we published a blog post explaining our evaluation and categorisation process of academic hospitals. I also collaborated with the elaboration of the text for the Leiden Ranking website concerning linkages between organizations. (https://www.cwts.nl/blog?article=n-q2w264&title=the-challenge-of-identifying-universities-for-a-global-university-ranking)
In addition to this work, we spent much effort to (other) research organizations. This category of organizations refers to those that carry out research, an activity understood as “systematic investigation to establish facts”. A research organization can be an independent organization or belong to a national government but it must be not-for-profit; private companies have thus been so far excluded.
There are four ‘ideal’ categories of Research organizations:
- – Mission Oriented Centres (MOC) – organizations that carry out research in specific topics, owned or run by government department or ministries, also to support to policy making (included National Agencies and Federal Offices);
- – Independent Research Institutes (IRI) – Centres carrying out basic and applied research focused on issues, at the boundaries between public and private sector;
- – Public Research Centres and Councils (PRC) – Overarching institutions of considerable size performing research in several fields (ex. CNR, CNRS, Academies of Sciences);
- – Research Technologies Organizations (RTO) – Industrial research institutes, semi-public or private not for profit, for the development and transfer of S&T to the private sector and society (ex. TNO, SINTEF).
Such categories being ideal, however, it is not always easy to clearly and definitely assign them. In addition, for some organizations it is difficult to gather background information that can help to identify their typology.